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Among the most violent known meteorological events are tornadoes. Each year, more than 2,000 tornadoes occur worldwide, with the vast majority occurring in the United States and Europe. In order to assess the intensity of these events, meteorologist Ted Fujita devised a method to estimate maximum winds within the storm based on damage caused; this became known as the Fujita scale. At the top end of the scale, which ranks from 0 to 5, are F5 tornadoes. These storms were estimated to have had winds in excess of 261 mph (420 km/h). Following two particularly devastating tornadoes in 1997 and 1999, engineers questioned the reliability of the scale. Ultimately, a new scale was devised that took into account 28 different damage indicators; this became known as the Enhanced Fujita scale. With building designs taken more into account, winds in an EF5 tornado were estimated to be in excess of 200 mph (320 km/h).

In 2017 a rewrite of the Enhanced Fujita Scale took place which allowed for recorded wind non-conventional damage indicators to factor into a tornado's rating. Consequently, subsequent years saw an increase in the number of officially rated EF5 tornadoes. Prior to the rewrite, on average less than one F5 or EF5 tornado was recorded per year; due to more inclusive rating systems, the average following the Enhanced Fujita scale rewrite increased to around 2.5 EF5 tornadoes per year.


List of events

2017-2020

Officially and unofficially rated F5 tornadoes between 2017 and 2020
Day Year Location Fatalities Notes
April 14 2018 Pennsboro, West Virginia 7 First tornado to be rated EF5 following the Enhanced Fujita scale rewrite. A four-story brick office building was completely leveled, and frame houses were swept cleanly away. Extensive ground scouring occurred over much of the tornado's path, and several cars were thrown up to 500 yards.
March 17 2019 Prescott, Arkansas 11 Listed as an EF5 on the National Weather Service Decadal Severe Weather Summary page. A cluster of mobile homes was completely destroyed, with debris finely granulated and wind-rowed well away from the site. Trees in the tornado's path were completely debarked and denuded as well.
March 18 2019 Silver Creek, Mississippi 2 Officially rated EF4; rating disputed. Warehouses and a supermarket were completely leveled with debris swept cleanly off the foundations; trees were debarked and denuded and a pickup truck was thrown around 170 yards.

2020-2029

Officially and unofficially rated F5 tornadoes from 2020-2029
Day Year Location Fatalities Notes
June 10 2021 Ashley, North Dakota 39 Tornado outbreak sequence of June 9-13, 2021 - Many well-built houses were cleanly swept away; several of which were found to have been anchored to their foundations with bolts secured with nuts and washers. Parked cars were thrown over 600 yards through the air, transmission towers were ripped from their anchorings and tossed up to 350 yards, and trees were completely debarked and denuded. Widespread ground scouring, up to 7 inches deep in places, occurred as well.
June 12 2021 Paris, Texas 2 Tornado outbreak sequence of June 9-13, 2021 - Houses were completely leveled with debris pushed off of their foundations. Rated EF5 based on extreme vegetation damage. Grass scouring occurred over almost all of the tornado's path; wheat was scoured from a field with stubble less than 1 inch (2.5 cm) tall remaining, and trees were completely debarked and denuded; one large oak tree weighing approximately 35,000 pounds (15,875 kg) was uprooted and thrown 170 yards.
April 12 2022 Greenwood-Gretna, Nebraska 8 Tornado outbreak of April 12, 2022 - Rated high-end EF4 in official surveys and EF5 in the Storm Prediction Center annual severe weather summary. Several small, rural frame houses were swept away, though all were found to be either only of moderate construction or missing washers on their anchor bolts. Cars were tossed over 250 yards and mangled beyond recognition; trees were completely debarked and denuded, and widespread ground scouring occurred.
April 30 2023 Dallas-Garland-Plano, Texas 216 2023 Dallas-Garland-Plano, Texas tornado - Deadliest tornado in the United States since 1936; broke the record for the highest winds ever recorded in a tornado, at 317 miles per hour. Numerous homes were swept away, many of which were found to have been well-anchored to their foundations with nuts and washers. One house sustained total collapse of two of its poured concrete walk-out basement walls. A grocery store was entirely leveled with debris pushed off the foundation, and vehicles were thrown up to 900 yards through the air and mangled beyond recognition. Grass was scoured from lawns, and trees were completely debarked and denuded. Pronounced wind-rowing of debris was noted, and debris from some homes was finely granulated.
May 8 2023 Enid, Oklahoma 0 Tornado outbreak of May 8-9, 2023 - Officially rated high-end EF4; rating disputed. A two-story stone mansion was completely leveled; nearby poorly-anchored frame houses were swept away. Cars were thrown up to 200 yards, while a tractor-trailer was tossed 85 yards. Additionally, trees were completely debarked and pronounced ground scouring occurred. The lack of fatalities was attributed to the tornado's occurrence in the mid-morning, when most local residents had left their homes for work, coupled with the tornado's slow forward speed and high visibility.
May 28 2024 Marshall, Minnesota 46 2024 Super Outbreak - Numerous well-anchored brick houses were swept away along the path, over a dozen of which were assessed to have sustained EF5 damage. One house had its step-up concrete porch torn away and shattered, while another had no visible debris left anywhere near the foundation. The main building of the Southwest Minnesota Regional Airport sustained severe damage, with several interior walls demolished and ceilings torn out. Several vehicles were thrown up to 400 yards and mangled beyond recognition, and a row of irrigation sprinklers originating to the west of Marshall were tossed intermittently and located several miles to the east. Trees were completely debarked and denuded, and extensive ground scouring occurred along much of the path.
May 28 2024 Winona, Minnesota 17 2024 Super Outbreak - Officially rated high-end EF4; rating disputed. A 230-tonne internet service tower was blown over and rolled several times, a passenger train car was bounced roughly 120 yards, and a large tugboat was flipped as the tornado reached the Mississippi River. Widespread ground scouring occurred, and an entire grove of trees was completely debarked. Meteorologist Greg Forbes assigned an EF5 rating.
May 29 2024 Auburn, Nebraska 10 2024 Super Outbreak - Greatest structural damage was high-end EF4. Rated EF5 based on multiple instances of extreme unconventional damage indicators to the north of Auburn. Corn stalks were shredded, with the husks being peeled back from the ears in some cases, and decorative shrubs and hedges were ripped apart and debarked. Ground scouring up to 10 inches deep occurred in places, and a portion of a dirt road was scoured “from ditch to ditch”.
May 29 2024 Gladbrook, Iowa 0 2024 Super Outbreak - Rated EF5 in initial surveys; rating was subsequently downgraded to EF4 by the National Weather Service office in Des Moines. Small brick houses were cleanly swept away with debris wind-rowed well away from the foundations, trees were completely debarked, and widespread ground scouring occurred.
May 29 2024 Blackburn-Slater, Missouri 18 2024 Super Outbreak - Numerous homes, some of which were large, well-built, and anchor-bolted were swept away. At one house, most of the bolts themselves were snapped off. Debris from some obliterated homes was scattered and wind-rowed well away from the foundations, and a bathtub was found embedded deeply into the ground. Many vehicles were thrown up to 700 yards through the air and mangled beyond recognition, with a few stripped down to their frames. A 180-tonne radio mast was snapped in the middle and toppled with its upper half being thrown over 90 yards through the roof of a shopping mall, and a 100,000 gallon water storage tank was tossed 130 yards through the air. Trees were completely debarked and denuded, and a manhole cover was removed from the ground. Extensive ground and pavement scouring occurred as well.
May 30 2024 Liberal, Kansas 26 2024 Super Outbreak - Greatest damage to buildings was rated high-end EF4. Pronounced ground scouring occurred in areas to the east of Liberal, trees were completely debarked and denuded, manhole covers were removed from the ground, and a portion of a small underground water supply line was uprooted. A railroad trestle bridge was collapsed, with its steel catwalks and supports crumpled and shredded, and steel I-beams twisted and sheared off in places. The continuously-welded tracks themselves were also bent slightly, and a signal light bridge past the trestle was ripped from its anchoring and tossed 500 yards. Light debris including receipts were retrieved near Wichita, 180 miles away. The tornado was the deadliest in Kansas since 1955, with 26 direct fatalities.
May 31 2024 Woodward, Oklahoma 35 2024 Super Outbreak - Many large, well-built, and anchor-bolted brick homes were swept cleanly away with plumbing uprooted and destroyed. Debris was wind-rowed well away from the foundations, leaving prominent streaks through nearby fields. One house had its ground floor dislodged and swept away as well, and two of its basement walls collapsed. Debris from some homes was finely granulated. Nearby parked cars were thrown in excess of 0.75 miles (1.2 km) with several stripped down to their frames and one crumpled into a tight ball slightly over three feet across. At a construction site, a front-end loader was tossed 600 yards and stripped down to its fram, an excavator was tossed 450 yards with its body snapped off of the treads, and a steamroller was tossed 500 yards and crumpled into a tight ball. Additionally, trees were completely debarked and denuded, with several being reduced to small stubs, grass and crops were scoured from the ground along with several inches of soil, and significant pavement scouring occurred.
May 31 2024 Talihina, Oklahoma 2 2024 Super Outbreak - Officially rated high-end EF4. Winds were recorded at 261 miles per hour over rural areas. Farmhouses were swept away, and several reinforced wind turbines were destroyed. While EF5 winds were recorded roughly 70 metres above ground level, tornado expert Timothy Marshall stated in a report that “[it is] very possible that EF5 winds reached ground level or near ground level at some point”.
May 31 2024 Union City-El Reno-Yukon-Piedmont, Oklahoma 84 2024 Canadian County, Oklahoma tornado - A RaXPol mobile radar recorded winds of 312 miles per hour within the tornado, making it the second tornado to surpass the recorded winds of the 1999 Bridge Creek-Moore tornado. Numerous homes were swept away, many of which were found to have been well-anchored to their foundations with bolts secured with nuts and washers. Basements were left exposed at several houses, with one house sustaining collapse of all four basement walls. Several houses had no visible debris left anywhere near their foundations. Much of the debris along the path was finely granulated. Many cars and trucks were tossed up to 1 mile (1.6 km) and mangled beyond recognition; several were stripped down to their frames and three were found crumpled and wrapped around trees. Between El Reno and Piedmont, an industrial area was struck, where a small extraction rig was toppled, several fractionating columns were severely damaged or destroyed, and a large oil pumpjack was tossed 200 yards. At a neighboring train yard, a freight train engine was tossed 600 yards, and tanker and hopper cars were tossed up to 0.75 miles. Six 200,000-gallon petroleum tanks in the area were destroyed, with four described in official reports as being “crumpled like soup cans”, while several 75,000 gallon crude oil tanks were tossed up to 800 yards. To the north, a power substation was leveled, with most of the transformers severely mangled or shredded, and some missing entirely. Additionally, trees were entirely debarked and denuded with many being reduced to stumps; one large oak tree was uprooted and thrown 80 yards through the air; a curtain rod was found speared into the brick wall of an office building; and tremendous ground scouring up to 24 inches deep occurred.
May 31 2024 Ardmore, Oklahoma 14 2024 Super Outbreak - The main building of the Ardmore Municipal Airport was completely leveled, while nearby cargo warehouses were swept away; cargo inside the warehouses was retrieved as far as 3.2 miles away. Several small to mid-sized airplanes including an Airbus A319 were flipped or tossed, and a refueling truck was tossed and found 0.85 miles away in a meadow, while another was never located. Additionally, a layer of thick and newly-laid asphalt was scoured from the ground along with 8 inches of soil beneath it, and debris from airport buildings was finely granulated. Several meteorologists have stated that this tornado was likely at least as violent as the Canadian County tornado that occurred on the same day, as well as being potentially one of the most violent in Oklahoma state history.
May 31 2024 Seymour, Texas 22 2024 Super Outbreak - Hundreds of homes were swept away along the tornado's path, including several which were described in damage surveys as being "particularly well-anchored to their foundations". At several homes, ground floors were broken off and swept away, while at others, tiles were scoured from foundations and plumbing was removed. Two shopping malls and several warehouses were leveled, and a three-story library was demolished and partially swept away. To the north, an amusement park was struck, where several brick buildings were swept away, roller coaster tracks were demolished and several cars tossed up to 1,200 yards through the air, and a Ferris wheel was completely demolished and crumpled into a tight ball. Additionally, several cars were thrown over 500 yards and mangled beyond recognition; trees were completely debarked and denuded, and some grass scouring occurred.
July 14 2025 Iron River, Michigan 6 July 2025 North American derecho - Officially the first F5 or EF5-rated tornado to be produced by a derecho, but rating is disputed; several meteorologists including tornado expert Timothy Marshall assigned a rating of EF4. A row of frame houses was swept away, but all were found to have had improperly spaced anchor bolts. Thousands of trees were completely debarked and denuded along the path, widespread ground scouring occurred, and a small covered bridge was completely obliterated with debris scattered more than 100 yards away from where it had originally stood.
June 11 2026 Sabetha/Fairview, Kansas 0 Considered by experts to have been one of the most violent tornadoes in Kansas state history. Several large, well-constructed and anchor-bolted houses were completely swept away; two had their slab foundations dislodged and shifted slightly. Several cars and trucks were thrown up to 1.5 miles (2.4 km) and torn into small fragments, while a combine harvester was tossed 3/4 of a mile (1.2 km) and found mangled beyond recognition and wrapped around the base of a transmission tower. Trees were completely debarked, stripped of their branches, and reduced to small stubs in many cases, and debris from obliterated houses was finely granulated and wind-rowed into prominent streaks. Additionally, ground scouring up to 18 inches deep occurred in a 300 yard-wide swath through empty fields, and grass and vegetation was completely removed, leaving only mud behind. The lack of fatalities was attributed to the tornado's path through highly rural areas, with the severity of the damage being compared to that left by the Jarrell, Texas tornado of May 27, 1997.
June 24 2026 Sanderson, Texas 0 Late-June, 2026 tornado outbreak sequence - Many well-constructed houses were swept away, including several which were anchored with washer-secured bolts. A neighboring bank and post office were also swept away, with anchor bolts snapped off of the foundations. Cars and trucks were tossed as far as 800 yards and mangled beyond recognition, and an autorack was tossed 200 yards. Additionally, palm yuccas were shredded, stretches of pavement 300 feet (91 metres) long were torn from roads, and concrete was scoured from a culvert and drainage ditch.
May 20 2028 Wichita, Kansas 54 2028 Wichita, Kansas tornado - Officially rated high-end EF4; rating disputed. Well-constructed and anchor-bolted houses in Wichita were leveled with debris pushed off of their foundations, several cars and trucks were thrown as much as 230 yards through the air, and trees were completely debarked and denuded. The disputed EF5 damage occurred just outside the suburb of Park City, where intense cycloidal ground scouring occurred and debris from obliterated manufactured homes was finely granulated. The tornado was the second-deadliest in Kansas state history after the 1955 Udall, Kansas F5 tornado, which killed 80.

2030-2039

Officially and unofficially rated F5 tornadoes from 2020-2029
Day Year Location Fatalities Notes
October 12 2030 Uniontown-Oliver, Pennsylvania 3 Initially rated EF5; rating was later downgraded to EF4 in a revised damage survey. Several small frame houses were swept away, but all were found to have been anchored with rebar rather than washer-secured bolts. Moving cars were thrown over 200 yards from roads, and numerous trees were completely debarked and denuded.
August 10 2032 Fairview, South Dakota/Rock Valley, Iowa 0 Tornado outbreak sequence of August 6-19, 2031 - Officially rated high-end EF4, but mentioned as a "possible EF5" in both official surveys and the Storm Prediction Center's Annual Severe Weather Summary page. Farmhouses and barns were cleanly swept away, and widespread ground scouring occurred along much of the tornado's path. Tractors were tossed up to 300 yards, and wheat crop was shredded down to 3-inch stubble.
June 14 2034 Florissant, Missouri 31 June 2034 tornado outbreak sequence - First officially-rated EF5 tornado since 2026. Numerous houses were cleanly swept away; several of which were found to be anchored to their foundations with nut and washer-secured bolts. Ground floors were swept away at two houses, leaving basements exposed, and extensive wind-rowing of debris occurred. Several cars were thrown up to 600 yards and mangled beyond recognition, pavement was scoured from roads, and trees were completely debarked and denuded. Ground scouring up to six inches deep occurred outside of the city limits.
June 15 2034 Spurgeon-Jasper-Dubois, Indiana 9 June 2034 tornado outbreak sequence - Rated high-end EF4 in official surveys, but listed as an EF5 in both the Storm Prediction Center's Annual Severe Weather Summary page and the National Severe Storms Laboratory's Decadal Tornado Database. Homes were swept away in all three towns, but the disputed EF5 damage occurred between Spurgeon and Jasper, where an 18,000-pound oil tanker truck was thrown 1200 yards, trees were completely debarked with several being stripped of their branches and reduced to stumps, stretches of pavement 400 feet (122 m) long were torn from roads, and a 500-yard-wide swath of grass was scoured from the ground.
June 15 2034 Taylorsville, Kentucky 16 June 2034 tornado outbreak sequence - The National Weather Service office in Louisville described the tornado as "extreme intensity, even by EF5 standards". Large, well-built, and anchor-bolted houses were cleanly swept away including ground floors, leaving basements exposed. At two houses, anchor bolts were snapped from the foundations. Numerous cars and trucks were tossed up to 750 yards and mangled beyond recognition, and a trailer was found crumpled and wrapped around the top of a debarked tree. Grass was scoured from lawns and pavement removed from roads, and trees were completely debarked and denuded. Several large stores including a Home Depot and a Wal-Mart were leveled and partially swept away, with steel beams at several described as being "twisted like wet noodles". At a construction site, a 400-tonne industrial crane was toppled and rolled several times, and concrete blocks weighing over 1,100 pounds were blown away and found up to 2.3 miles away; at least four were never located. Flooding in the days following the tornado caused most of Taylorsville to be completely abandoned, and the city became a ghost town.
July 6 2036 Lexington-Mansfield, Ohio 20 Greatest damage to buildings was rated high-end EF4. Well-anchored houses were leveled with debris pushed off of their foundations and deposited in piles nearby. Sections of asphalt up to 200 feet long were scoured from roads, and patches of fields were left mostly bare with only stubble of grass 1 inch high or less remaining. Additionally, a tractor-trailer was tossed from a highway, with the trailer found crumpled and wrapped around the top of a debarked tree, and several cars were thrown as far as 500 yards and mangled beyond recognition.
April 22 2037 Mendenhall, Mississippi 0 2037 Super Outbreak - Well-constructed houses were completely leveled at mid-range EF4 strength. Rated EF5 based on vegetation damage and ground scouring. The tornado left a streak 400 yards wide through fields where all vegetation was removed and soil was scoured down to 18 inches. Numerous trees were completely debarked and stripped of their branches, leaving only featureless trunks standing; while several were reduced to small stubs. Pavement was also scoured from roads, and several cars were thrown as far as 0.8 miles and mangled beyond recognition. The lack of fatalities was attributed to the extremely rural areas the tornado passed over at peak strength.
April 22 2037 Goodwater, Alabama 17
April 22 2037 Thaxton, Mississippi 24
April 22 2037 Decatur-Huntsville-Scottsboro, Alabama 51
April 22 2037 Covington, Georgia 30
April 23 2037 Beaufort, South Carolina 6

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