2024 Super Outbreak
Supercell from plane.jpg
Tornadic supercell over Choctaw County, Mississippi on April 10.
Date of tornado outbreak: April 8–12, 2024
Duration1: 4 days, 2 hours, 18 minutes
Maximum rated tornado2: EF5 tornado
Tornadoes caused: 486 (Record for a continuous outbreak)
Total Damages: $36.2 billion
Total Fatalities: 531 (+29 non-tornadic)

1Time from first tornado to last tornado
2Most severe tornado damage; see wikipedia:Enhanced Fujita Scale

The 2024 Super Outbreak was the largest, costliest, and third-deadliest tornado outbreak in United States history. The outbreak primarily affected the "Dixie Alley" region of the United States, with additional destructive tornadoes occurring in the Great Lakes region on April 10. The outbreak produced a total of 486 tornadoes in 24 states, with the states of Alabama, Georgia, Indiana, Ohio, and Tennessee being the most severely affected. April 10 was by far the most active day of the outbreak, producing 312 tornadoes, including eight which were rated EF5, and 22 which were rated EF4.

A total of 531 people were killed by the outbreak, with an additional 29 people killed as a result of powerful straight-line winds, lightning, and flash flooding. 275 of the tornado-related deaths were the result of five violent tornadoes in Alabama, Georgia, and Indiana on April 10. Several other tornadoes caused death tolls well into the double digits, particularly in Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia.

Due to its extent and severity, the outbreak was compared by both meteorologists and mass media to the 1974 Super Outbreak, which produced a similar number of strong to violent tornadoes across the Midwestern states and into the "Dixie Alley" region. Thirteen years after the 2024 Super Outbreak, another extremely large outbreak of tornadoes would affect the Central Plains states, producing 468 tornadoes and producing $28.5 billion in damage, becoming the second-largest and second-costliest tornado outbreak on record in the United States.

Meteorological synopsis

In the early morning of April 8, an intense low-pressure system was observed developing over the Central Plains states. As the system moved eastward over the Midwestern States it was further intensified by a warm and extremely humid mass of air and particularly sharp temperature gradient across the system. As early as April 6, forecast conditions for April 10 were notably analogous to April 3, 1974, and the Storm Prediction Center issued a 30% risk of significant severe weather over much of the Eastern United States.

By the morning of April 10, a large-scale trough extended over nearly two-thirds of the contiguous United States, and a very powerful 80–100 knot mid-level jet stream moved into the Ohio and Tennessee Valleys behind the trough and created strong wind shear, along with a low pressure center moving quickly northeastward across those areas on April 27. During the afternoon of April 27, CAPE values were estimated to be in the range of 2000–3000 J/kg across Louisiana and southern Mississippi, with the moderate instability moving northeastward across the southern Tennessee Valley; additionally, temperatures across the southeastern United States ranged from the 70s°F (mid-20s°C) to the lower 90s°F (near 35 °C). Helicity levels ranged from 450–600 m2/s2, which supported some significant tornadic activity and strong to violent long-track tornadoes.

The Storm Prediction Center issued a moderate risk of severe weather for April 10 in its Day 3 convective outlook on April 8; by the morning of April 9, the moderate risk was extended from the Dixie Alley area north into the Midwestern states, while a high risk of severe weather was issued for central Alabama and western Georgia. By 0600 UTC on April 10, the high risk was expanded to cover most of Alabama and a significant portion of western Georgia and eastern and central Mississippi; while a second high-risk area was issued for southeastern Indiana, western Ohio, and far northern Kentucky. In the 1300 UTC outlook, a 45% hatched risk of tornadoes was issued for a corridor extending from Jackson, Mississippi to Atlanta, Georgia, while a small 60% hatched risk of tornadoes was issued in the 2000 UTC outlook for eastern Alabama and western Georgia.

April 8

2024-04-08 D1 Outlook

2000 UTC outlook on April 8.

The National Weather Service had forecast a marginal risk of severe weather for April 8 the previous day, believing that meager instability would hamper the development of any significant severe thunderstorms. On the morning of April 8, when it became clear that CAPE values were somewhat higher than had been expected, a slight risk of severe weather was issued for central and eastern Oklahoma. The slight risk was based primarily on a 15% risk of damaging wind gusts, with a small 5% risk of tornadoes issued for the Tulsa metropolitan area. At 2:16 pm CDT, a tornado watch was issued for eastern Oklahoma, with a 40% probability of two or more tornadoes, and a 20% probability of one or more significant (EF2+) tornadoes.

By 5:00 pm CDT, several supercells had developed in Oklahoma, five of which quickly developed areas of tight and persistent rotation, resulting in the issuance of tornado warnings in several counties in eastern Oklahoma. Several weak and short-lived tornadoes were reported in the late afternoon hours, including an EF1 tornado which caused considerable damage at a mobile home park near Depew, Oklahoma, resulting in one death and around 25 injuries. Most of the other tornadoes in the afternoon hours produced little damage and no fatalities or injuries. Two of the tornadic supercells continued to intensify after sunset and produced more significant tornadoes.

At around 9:30 pm, a large EF3 tornado struck the town of McAlester, Oklahoma, demolishing numerous frame houses, snapping and uprooting trees, tossing parked cars up to 120 yards, and toppling a large metal transmission tower. Three people were killed in McAlester, and an additional 78 were injured. A second strong tornado occurred in an industrial area just outside the Tulsa city limits, causing severe roof damage to several factories and partially demolishing a half-dozen warehouses. The tornado caused one death and 17 injuries, and was rated as a high-end EF2.

A total of 49 tornadoes were reported on April 8, of which 37 were confirmed. Five people were killed on the 8th, and approximately 160 were injured. The McAlester tornado was the first tornado to cause multiple deaths in Oklahoma in five years, and the costliest in the state since the EF5 tornado which struck the city of Moore on May 20, 2013.

April 9

2024-04-09 D1 Outlook

2000 UTC outlook on April 9.

The National Weather Service anticipated the development of numerous severe thunderstorms in the Southeastern United States on April 9 in an area extending from central Arkansas south to the Gulf Coast region. A slight risk of severe weather for the area was issued on April 7; by April 8, the slight risk was shifted slightly to the south, while an enhanced risk area was added for far eastern Texas and southwestern Louisiana.

On the morning of April 9, a moderate risk of severe weather was issued for the Ark-La-Tex area, while the enhanced and slight risk areas were expanded eastward to the Mississippi state line. The moderate risk was based on a 15% hatched risk of tornadoes and a 45% hatched risk of damaging wind gusts. At 1:25 pm CDT a tornado watch with a 70% chance of two or more tornadoes and a 40% chance of one or more significant tornadoes was issued for central and southern Arkansas. By 2:10 pm CDT, a Particularly Dangerous Situation (PDS) tornado watch, with an 80% chance of two or more tornadoes and a 60% chance of one or more significant tornadoes, was issued for northern Louisiana and extreme eastern Texas.

An intense squall line developed over eastern Texas in the morning hours and tracked due east across Louisiana and Arkansas, before gradually weakening as it passed over Mississippi, Alabama and Tennessee. Severe rainfall and damaging wind gusts were reported, along with two unverified tornado reports in southern Arkansas. By the mid-afternoon hours, supercells began to develop, with one long-lived supercell tracking along the triple point and producing several strong tornadoes. The first significant tornado of the day was a large, EF2-rated wedge which struck the small community of Ajax, Louisiana at around 3:45 pm CDT, killing two people and injuring an additional 16. Soon after, another supercell to the northwest produced an intense EF3 tornado which cut through Jonesville, Texas at 3:57 pm, demolishing dozens of houses and injuring 13 people. At 4:26 pm, the same supercell that produced the Ajax tornado spawned another tornado which touched down in rural Jackson Parish. The tornado rapidly intensified and tracked through the town of Chatham, where three fatalities and 36 injuries occurred. The Chatham tornado was rated as a high-end EF3, with estimated winds of 160 miles per hour. The parent supercell produced two weak tornadoes before another large tornado developed over Morehouse Parish at 6:03 pm, and passed near the village of Mer Rouge. The tornado considerable damage at several farms and over forested areas, and was rated as an EF2 with estimated winds of 125 miles per hour.

Several supercells continued into Arkansas in the evening hours, producing additional strong tornadoes. A low-end EF2 tornado tracked through Bluff City at 7:12 pm, injuring three people, while another EF2 tornado caused severe damage to homes and businesses in Dierks, resulting in seven injuries. At 9:49 pm, the supercell which produced the Ajax, Chatham, and Mer Rouge tornadoes spawned a final EF3 tornado which tracked through northern Lonoke County and into White County, resulting in one death in the small community of Garner and 33 injuries. The final significant tornado of the day was an EF2-rated multiple-vortex tornado which tracked through rural Yell County before striking the town of Havana at 10:18 pm, resulting in nine injuries.

78 tornadoes were reported on April 9, of which 73 were confirmed. Four of the tornadoes were rated EF3, and seven were rated EF2. Six people were killed during the day, and over 210 were injured. April 9 was the most prolific day for tornadoes in the United States since June 11, 2019. The event was immediately overshadowed by April 10, which produced nearly five times as many tornadoes.

April 10

2024-04-10 D1 outlook

2000 UTC outlook on April 10.

April 10 was by far the most prolific day of the outbreak sequence as well as the most active 24-hour period ever recorded in the United States. The 312 tornadoes in 16 states that occurred eclipsed even the 237 tornadoes confirmed on April 27, 2011, the previous record-holding day. Tornadoes were confirmed across much of the Eastern United States, from the Gulf Coast north to the Great Lakes region. A large outbreak of tornadic supercells occurred over Indiana, Ohio, and northern Kentucky in the early to mid-afternoon hours; while an even more intense wave of supercells tracked through Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, and the Carolinas in the late afternoon and into the overnight hours.

The National Weather Service had anticipated the development of numerous long-track and intense tornadoes on April 10; as early as April 4, a 15% risk of severe weather was forecast for the majority of the Eastern United States. By April 6, a 30% risk of severe weather was issued for east-central Mississippi, central Alabama, and Central Georgia. A very large moderate risk area was issued for Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana on April 8, with the Storm Prediction Center noting the probability of a Day 2 high risk being issued. The 0700 Day 2 convective outlook on April 9 split the moderate risk area into two separate areas: a roughly circular area covering portions of eastern Indiana and western Ohio, and a larger, egg-shaped area for portions of Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia. A high risk area was issued for central Alabama in the afternoon of April 9.

On the morning of April 10, the high risk area was expanded to cover most of the moderate risk area issued the previous day, and a second high risk area was issued for east-central Indiana and west-central Ohio.

Of the 312 tornadoes confirmed on April 10, eight were rated EF5; 22 were rated EF4; and 38 were rated EF3. Of the 498 fatalities on April 10, nearly half were the result of four individual tornadoes. Several of the violent tornadoes on April 10 were noted as having exceptionally high fatality rates; in some cases more fatalities than injuries occurred. As a result of the distribution and intensity of the tornadoes on April 10, the National Weather Service and numerous media outlets compared the day's event to the Super Outbreak of 1974.

Indiana and Ohio

Sunset GA tornado

EF3 tornado in Hagerstown, Indiana.

Supercells developed rapidly over central and southern Indiana during the late morning hours of the 10th, several of which quickly became tornadic. The first tornadoes of the day developed over central Indiana at around 11:00 am EDT. Several weak and short-lived tornadoes occurred within the hour and caused minor damage. The first intense tornado of the day was an EF3-rated multiple-vortex tornado which struck Quincy, Indiana at 12:17 pm, and was quickly followed by a high-end EF2 tornado which caused considerable damage in the town of Monrovia. The first EF5 tornado of the outbreak struck the town of Medora, Indiana at 12:40 pm, causing five fatalities and 19 injuries over its 25-mile path. The Medora tornado was quickly followed by a devastating EF4 tornado which cut through the city of Seymour at 1:23 pm, severely damaging or destroying nearly a quarter of all buildings in town, resulting in 41 deaths and 371 injuries. Another damaging EF3 tornado impacted the city of Hagerstown at 1:38 pm, causing one death and 11 injuries.

Holly Springs MS Tornado 4

EF4 tornado near Sycamore, Ohio.

By the mid-afternoon hours, most of the supercells had continued into Ohio, with the same supercell that produced the EF3 Quincy, Indiana tornado producing a violent EF5 tornado which impacted Urbana, Ohio at around 2:30 pm, causing 17 deaths and 381 injuries. At around 2:50 pm, a destructive EF3 tornado caused widespread destruction in the Hamilton suburbs of Millville and New Miami, causing one death and 19 injuries. Around the same time, a violent and long-tracked tornado touched down in Ross County, Ohio, reaching EF4 strength as it tracked through the towns of Adelphi and Laurelville at 3:09 pm. The tornado caused three deaths and 22 injuries along its path. Two large tornadoes struck Fredericktown shortly before 3:45 pm, damaging almost every structure in town. These twin tornadoes were rated EF3 and EF2. At 4:14 pm, the same supercell that produced the Adelphi–Laurelville tornado produced another destructive EF4 tornado which tracked through Cumberland, causing catastrophic damage and 26 injuries. The final violent tornado of the Great Lakes event touched down at 5:17 pm and tracked for 51 miles through northern Ohio, reaching high-end EF4 strength near the town of Sycamore. Two people were killed in this tornado, and 31 others were injured.

Continuing into eastern Ohio and Pennsylvania, the supercells began to weaken and dissipate, with the final tornado of the event being an EF0-rated rope tornado which caused minor tree damage in Belmont County, Ohio at around 6:45 pm. 81 tornadoes occurred in the Great Lakes area, causing 79 deaths and 802 injuries

Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia

Hattiesburg MS Tornado 2

EF4 tornado in Aberdeen, Mississippi.

The morning hours of April 10 were humid and overcast in the Southeastern states, with temperatures in the 78 to 85 range across much of Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia. The cloud cover began to break at around 9:30 am CDT, and within two hours, several extremely intense supercells began to develop. At around 2:30 pm CDT, a particularly violent EF5 tornado passed to the southeast of Cleveland, Mississippi, killing six people and causing extreme ground scouring and vegetation damage. At around the same time, a violent EF4 tornado developed in rural areas of Carroll County and tracked through the city of Winona at 2:48 pm, devastating the north side of town and killing seven people. The parent supercell of the EF5 Cleveland tornado produced a very large EF3 tornado just before 3:00 pm, which cut a 1.7-mile wide path through Oakland, killing one person. As the tornadic supercells continued east towards Alabama, another EF4 tornado left a 49-mile track across northeastern Mississippi, causing 11 fatalities in and near the town of Bruce. At 4:03 pm, a long-tracked EF5 tornado touched down in north-central Mississippi, devastating the towns of Taylor, Thaxton, and Cornish, and killing 24 people. The tornado's path was 98 miles long and 1.4 miles wide at its widest point. A final EF4 tornado touched down in eastern Mississippi at 6:27 pm, leaving a 72-mile path and causing very high-end EF4 damage in the town of Aberdeen and surrounding areas of Monroe County. Four fatalities resulted from this tornado.

Bridgeport AL tornado

EF4 tornado near Piedmont, Alabama.

Tornadic activity was at its most severe in Alabama, where the majority of the 531 fatalities caused by the outbreak occurred. An EF5 tornado tracked directly through the town of Greensboro at around 3:25 pm, killing 19; immediately after the Greensboro tornado dissipated, its parent supercell produced a high-end EF3 tornado which caused seven deaths in the town of Lawley. Shortly after the EF4 Bruce, Mississippi tornado dissipated, the same supercell produced another violent and long-tracked tornado which caused near-EF5 damage in the towns of Sulligent, Beaverton, and Winfield, killing one person and leaving a path 58 miles long. Around an hour later, a damaging EF4 tornado tracked through the town of Hayden, damaging or destroying almost every building in the small community and causing several injuries. Another EF5 tornado touched down in Franklin County at 5:11 pm and tracked for 79 miles into southern Tennessee, reaching peak strength in the towns of Tanner, Capshaw, and Harvest, causing 54 deaths and 841 injuries. Farther to the south at around the same time, an EF4 tornado tracked through Prattville and Millbrook, killing two people and injuring 18. At around 5:30 pm, two violent EF4 tornadoes touched down in eastern Alabama; one tracked through Hollytree and Allison and South Pittsburg, Tennessee, killing 18 people, while the other struck Piedmont and surrounding rural areas of Calhoun County, causing four deaths. The deadliest and longest-tracked tornado of the entire outbreak touched down in rural Tuscaloosa County at 5:41 and tracked for 154 miles into eastern Georgia. The tornado left a 64-mile swath of unbroken EF5 and EF4 damage and causing 87 deaths and 161 injuries, primarily in the cities of Adamsville and Fultondale. The final violent tornado in Alabama of the day touched down at 6:12 pm in the far south of the state and tracked through Citronelle, killing 10 people and injuring 63.

By the evening hours, most of the tornadic supercells had tracked out of Alabama into Tennessee and Georgia. While many supercells began to weaken into the evening, many others remained intense and produced additional violent tornadoes in Georgia.

Tennessee and Kentucky

Murfreesboro TN Tornado 1

EF4 tornado in Powderly, Kentucky.

While the brunt of the outbreak was focused to the north and south, several intense to violent tornadoes also occurred in Kentucky during the afternoon, most of which were associated with the Great Lakes area supercell cluster. At around 2:50 pm CDT, Union Star was struck by a damaging EF3 tornado which caused 13 injuries and severe damage to most of the buildings in the tiny community. To the southwest, a powerful EF4 tornado touched down in Muhlenburg County at 3:21 pm, devastating the city of Powderly and causing three fatalities and 61 injuries. The Powderly tornado was the first violent tornado, as well as the deadliest tornado, in the state of Kentucky since March 2, 2012. After the Powderly tornado dissipated, its parent supercell produced another intense tornado, rated EF3, which destroyed numerous homes and businesses in Beaver Dam, causing one fatality and 27 injuries. Another EF4 tornado tracked through southeastern Mason County at 4:36 pm, largely destroying the small communities of Orangeburg and Plumville, killing one person and injuring 16. The parent supercell of the Powderly and Beaver Dam tornadoes produced an exceptionally large EF3 tornado near Flaherty at 5:12 pm, which reached a peak width of 1.8 miles and caused 11 injuries along its path. Just before 5:30 pm, a long-tracked EF3 tornado touched down and left an 83-mile path across the south-central and southeastern areas of the state, reaching peak intensity near the town of Exie, where two fatalities and 31 injuries occurred. At 5:44 pm, a third EF4 tornado touched down to the east of Richmond and left a 57-mile path before dissipating to the west of Sandy Hook. No fatalities occurred in this tornado, although 41 people were injured.

Vilonia AR Tornado 2

EF4 tornado near Beech Grove, Tennessee.

Significant tornadic activity also took place in Tennessee, mainly during the evening hours as supercells tracked north from Alabama and Georgia. At 6:10 pm CDT, an EF4 tornado touched down and tracked to the west of Georgetown, reaching a peak width of 2.3 miles and causing extreme vegetation damage in rural areas. The Georgetown tornado was the fourth-widest ever recorded, behind the 2013 El Reno, Oklahoma tornado, the 2037 Talihina, Oklahoma tornado, and the 2004 Hallam, Nebraska tornado. Another violent EF4 tornado tracked directly through the town of Beech Grove just after 9:00 pm, causing 9 fatalities and 116 injuries. Almost immediately after the Beech Grove tornado dissipated, its parent supercell produced another deadly tornado which caused two deaths and 59 injuries in Centertown, earning a rating of EF3. A long-tracked EF4 tornado touched down to the north at 9:52 pm and tracked through Cookeville at EF4 strength, causing 7 fatalities and 36 injuries along its path; shortly afterward, another long-tracked, high-end EF4 tornado struck the city of Crossville, killing 11 people and injuring 93. The final intense tornado of the day touched down at 11:21 pm in the Nantahala National Forest, causing severe tree and vegetation damage and earning a rating of EF3, although no fatalities or injuries were reported from this tornado.

April 11

April 12

Notable tornadoes

Medora, Indiana

EF5 tornado (NWS)
Century FL tornado 3.jpg
Duration 1225 EDT – 1255 EDT
Intensity 340 km/h (210 mph) (1-min)

The first EF5 tornado of the tornado outbreak developed over southern Indiana in the early afternoon hours of April 10 and tracked through the town of Medora before dissipating in rural Jackson County. The tornado touched down at 12:25 pm EDT over a forested area near the community of Pinhook, initially toppling trees in its path at EF1 strength. The tornado gradually intensified as it tracked east-northeast, snapping several trees at EF2 strength minutes after touching down. After crossing Guthrie Creek, the tornado struck a farmhouse, completely removing its roof and collapsing a portion of one of its second-floor walls. A nearby shed was mostly demolished at mid-range EF2 strength, and several more trees were snapped and toppled. The tornado weakened to EF1 strength as it continued over another forest, toppling trees and snapping branches in its path. A small cottage sustained minor roofing damage in this area as well.

Moving over a series of farmers' fields, the tornado reintensified to high-end EF2 strength, mostly demolishing a barn and a steel garage. A man who attempted to shelter in the garage was crushed to death as the tornado struck. The tornado then cut through a rural subdivision while continuing to intensify. Several frame houses were destroyed with only interior walls left standing, while numerous others had their roofs removed. A brick Methodist church lost the majority of its roof and half of one exterior wall. Several parked cars in this area were tossed up to 95 yards, and trees were snapped and uprooted. Surveys determined that a mixture of EF2 and EF3-level damage occurred in the area. Moving over a large forested area, the tornado maintained EF3 strength, snapping and uprooting thousands of trees in its path. Numerous trees were partially debarked, and a few trees near a hiking trail were stripped of their branches and reduced to featureless trunks; tree damage at this location was severe enough that damage surveyors assigned an EF4 rating.

Immediately after exiting the forest, the violent and intensifying tornado cut directly through the town of Medora. Numerous well-constructed frame houses in the tornado's path were competely leveled, and several were entirely swept away. Some of these houses were found to have been newly built and well-anchored to their foundations; at least seven houses were determined to have sustained EF5 damage. The western half of Medora High School was torn away with debris scattered more than 150 yards downwind, while the eastern half was almost entirely leveled. A neighboring brick church was flattened, while a steel warehouse was reduced to an empty foundation. Several parked cars near the church were tossed as far as 700 yards and mangled beyond recognition while a tractor-trailer was thrown 400 yards into a bank. Further to the east, brick businesses including a tavern and a post office were swept away; a few anchor bolts at the post office were snapped off of the foundation. Trees in a small wood lot were completely debarked and denuded before the tornado moved over more rural areas. Four people were killed in town, and an additional 60 were injured.

The tornado maintained EF4 strength for a half-mile to the east of Medora, sweeping away barns and outbuildings on a farm and debarking additional trees. Past this point, the tornado rapidly weakened to low-end EF3 strength, partially demolishing a rural warehouse before crossing the East Fork White River, snapping and uprooting dozens of trees along its banks. The tornado then moved over a vineyard, flattening crops and partially demolishing a wooden barn. EF2 damage was observed as far east as Highway 39, beyond which the tornado weakened to EF0 strength. Minor roofing damage was observed to several barns before the tornado dissipated to the north-northeast of Retreat at 12:55 pm.

The tornado remained on the ground for 30 minutes over a 25.60-mile path. The tornado was given a rating of EF5, with estimated peak winds of 210 miles per hour based on the damage in Medora. A total of five people were killed, and 78 others were injured. The National Weather Service office in Indianapolis expressed that the tornado's low death toll was "remarkable" considering the tornado's occurrence in the early afternoon. The lack of a much higher death toll was attributed to considerable lead time, with the town of Medora having been under a tornado warning for more than 20 minutes before the tornado struck.

Seymour, Indiana

EF4 tornado (NWS)
Washington IL Tornado 3.jpg
Duration 1316 EDT – 1358 EDT
Intensity 280 km/h (175 mph) (1-min)
Main article: 2024 Seymour, Indiana tornado

In the early afternoon hours of April 10, a violent and deadly tornado cut through the city of Seymour and surrounding areas of southeastern Indiana, earning a rating of EF4. The tornado touched down at 1:16 pm EDT in rural Jackson County roughly two miles to the southwest of Hangman Crossing and was initially weak, but rapidly intensified to EF3 strength as it tracked through Hangman Crossing, destroying numerous houses, debarking trees, and causing one fatality.

The tornado further intensified to EF4 strength as it continued into Seymour, destroying several businesses before devastating residential areas, where hundreds of houses in its path were destroyed and the majority of Seymour High School was demolished. Moving into the downtown area, the tornado destroyed numerous brick buildings including the Seymour Police Station. A total of 62 businesses were damaged or destroyed in the downtown area before the tornado moved over an industrial area on the eastern side of the town, severely damaging a large trucking plant. Several barns and a farmhouse were swept away to the northeast of Seymour, and hundreds of trees in a forested area were debarked and denuded. 36 people were killed in the Seymour city limits, and 297 were injured.

The tornado weakened to EF3 strength as it continued northeast, destroying a large farmhouse and several barns and outbuildings. A second area of EF4 damage occurred as the tornado crossed over a rural subdivision, leveling four frame houses. Again weakening to EF3 strength, the tornado passed to the south of Queensville, destroying additional houses and severely damaging two churches and two factories. EF2 damage was observed as the tornado moved over an orchard and struck a mushroom barn. Several mobile homes near the North Vernon Municipal Airport were destroyed, resulting in another fatality. EF2 damage was observed for an additional two miles as the tornado continued through forested areas before dissipating to the south of Napoleon at 1:58 pm.

The tornado remained on the ground for 42 minutes and left a path 34.25 miles long, reaching a peak width of 410 yards near Queensville. A state of emergency was issued for Jackson County at 12:16 pm EDT and federal aid was soon dispatched to Seymour, as well as the nearby city of Medora, which had previously been struck by an EF5 tornado produced by the same supercell that produced the Seymour tornado. The parent supercell produced a final significant tornado, rated EF2, near the unincorporated community of Cedar Grove at 2:32 pm, which resulted in six injuries.

Urbana, Ohio

EF5 tornado (NWS)
South Nashville TN EF3.jpg
Duration 1413 EDT – 1449 EDT
Intensity 350 km/h (220 mph) (1-min)

Produced by a powerful cyclic supercell, this EF5-rated tornado tracked through rural areas of western Ohio and passed near the city of Urbana while near peak strength. The tornado touched down at 2:13 pm EDT near the community of Dawnview Acres and tracked northeast at more than 50 miles per hour. The tornado initially damaged the roofs of several frame houses and snapped numerous tree branches before moving over farmland. A few barns and outbuildings sustained moderate roofing damage over the next two miles of the tornado's path, while farmhouses had shingles removed from their roofs. The tornado strengthened to EF2 intensity as it grazed past the tiny unincorporated community of North Hampton, where mobile homes were demolished, frame houses had their roofs completely removed, the Pike Township Fire Station lost all but one corner of its roof, and a brick courthouse sustained minor damage.

Past North Hampton, the tornado moved over empty fields and caused minimal damage over the next mile of its path. Video evidence suggest the tornado nearly doubled its width in a period of 30 seconds, expanding to 800 yards. The tornado passed over a forested area at high-end EF2 strength, toppling and snapping hundreds of trees before cutting through the Pinewood Estates subdivision, where a steel warehouse was mostly demolished, a few permanent houses had their roofs and exterior walls removed, and mobile homes were leveled. Damage in Pinewood Estates was initially rated high-end EF2 before being upgraded to low-end EF3 in a secondary damage survey. The Drake Acres subdivision was struck next, where several more houses were demolished, trees were partially debarked, and several cars were thrown up to 160 yards.

The tornado weakened to EF0 and low-end EF1 strength as it passed through another forested area and to the northwest of Tremont City due to the fluctuating intensity of its parent supercell. Minimal damage occurred over the next five miles of the tornado's path. An industrial area near Storms Creek was struck at EF1 strength, where several factories and warehouses sustained minor roofing damage, and outbuildings were heavily damaged. The tornado rapidly regained intensity as it neared Highway 55, debarking trees in a wood lot at high-end EF3 strength. Further to the northeast, a farmhouse was completely leveled, three barns were swept away, and additional trees were debarked. Two people were killed in this area, and three people were injured. As the tornado neared Highway 55, a rare tornado emergency was issued for the city of Urbana.

The tornado reached EF5 intensity as it cut through the southeastern fringe of Urbana. An industrial area was struck first, where a large manufacturing plant was leveled and partially swept away, with debris scattered across the eastern half of the town, and a furniture warehouse and a packaging company building were completely flattened. Several trucks in the area were thrown more than 500 yards, and a forklift was found nearly a full mile to the north. As the tornado continued into residential areas, numerous well-constructed split-level houses were swept away, many of which were found to have been well-anchored with nut and washer-secured bolts. Surveys reported that at least 30 houses were reduced to bare foundations, 12 of which were found to have sustained EF5 damage. Two houses had their basement walls cleanly sheared off inches above ground level. Additionally, several trees were completely debarked and denuded, and cars were tossed up to 750 yards and mangled beyond recognition. The tornado moved over a track and field stadium, leaving a swath of pronounced grass scouring before moving over Highway 36, leveling a Kroger grocery store, a bank, and a Walmart, then exiting the city limits and moving over more rural areas. A total of 13 people were killed in Urbana, and 141 were injured.

Past Urbana, a large farm was struck at EF5 strength. The large and well-constructed farmhouse was cleanly swept away with a portion of its ground floor collapsed into the basement, and debris scattered a quarter-mile to the east. Two cars parked nearby were tossed 600 yards, with one found crumpled and wrapped around the trunk of a tree. Corn stalks in fields were shredded down to stubble, and widespread soil scouring occurred. EF4 damage continued as the tornado crossed Highway 36 a second time, tossing a truck two-thirds of a mile from the highway and killing the driver. Nearby trees were completely debarked, and an unanchored farmhouse further to the northeast was swept away, with a large tractor nearby being tossed 500 yards. An auto repair shop near Highway 36 was completely leveled, leading to one final fatality. The tornado weakened further to EF3 strength as it passed over another wood lot, snapping and uprooting dozens more trees.

Moving over empty fields, the tornado narrowed to 300 yards in width and took on a typical stovepipe appearance. EF1 to EF2-level damage was observed to a subdivision near Woodstock, where several houses had their roofing severely stripped, and the Triad High School had its roof completely removed and one exterior wall knocked down. Another subdivision of small, wooden frame houses to the north was struck as the tornado continued to weaken and narrow. EF1-level roofing damage was observed to several houses in this area, and several trees and power poles were downed. The tornado roped out and dissipated over a forest to the south of North Lewisburg at 2:49 pm.

The tornado caused 17 fatalities and 208 injuries over its 29.80-mile path, and remained on the ground for 36 minutes. The tornado was rated as an EF5, with estimated peak winds of 220 miles per hour (350 km/h) based on damage in residential areas of Urbana. The National Weather Service office in Wilmington, Ohio later stated that, despite the devastation, the death toll may have been several times higher if the tornado had tracked slightly to the north and struck the central business district of Urbana, or struck an hour earlier, when more commuters were on the roads. The tornado was the first to be rated F5 or EF5 in Ohio since May 31, 1985, and the first violent tornado in the state since June 5, 2010. Urbana was the first of five cities visited by the President of the United States in the days following the outbreak and the first to receive federal aid.

Adelphi–Laurelville, Ohio

EF4 tornado (NWS)
Henryville IN Tornado.png
Duration 1454 EDT – 1548 EDT
Intensity 285 km/h (180 mph) (1-min)

This violent and long-lived tornado cut a path through south-central Ohio in the mid-afternoon hours of April 10, reaching mid-range EF4 strength as it struck the neighboring towns of Adelphi and Laurelville, causing several fatalities and hundreds of injuries. The tornado touched down at 2:54 pm EDT near Andersonville and was initially weak, inflicting EF1-level damage to the roof of a small church. A few houses, two metal storage buildings, and a farmhouse sustained EF1-level damage to their roofs and siding shortly after the tornado touched down. As the tornado moved over empty fields, it expanded from 35 to 70 yards in width and took on a long "elephant trunk" appearance. A barn to the east lost half of its roof, and nearby grain bins were damaged before the tornado moved over a forested area, where hundreds of trees were toppled. EF0-level damage was observed to sheds and outbuildings on the far side of the forest, and a rural frame house sustained low-end EF1 roofing damage. Additional trees in a wood lot were downed before the tornado reached EF2 strength as it struck the Pickaway-Ross Career & Technology Center, causing severe roofing damage to the complex and flipping or tossing several vehicles in the parking lot. Three people were injured in this area.

The tornado then continued over empty fields, flattening corn stalks and damaging the roofs of sheds. EF2 damage was observed as the tornado moved over residential areas to the south of Kingston, completely removing the roofs from several well-constructed homes, partially demolishing a convenience store, leveling two small sheds, and toppling or snapping several trees. As the tornado continued over another wood lot, numerous trees were snapped and uprooted at high-end EF2 strength. The nearby Kingston Church had its roof removed and one exterior wall collapsed, and barns and farmhouses further to the east were partially or mostly demolished. One poorly-anchored farmhouse in the area was leveled and partially swept away at low-end EF3 strength. Consistent EF2 damage was observed as the tornado passed through another forest, toppling or snapping trees in its path.

Around this time, the tornado expanded to around 120 yards in width, with the funnel becoming roughly V-shaped. Two other farmhouses had their roofs completely removed, and several barns were demolished, before the tornado regained EF3 intensity to the east of Whisler. Several well-constructed houses were completely demolished in the Whisler area, barns and a vehicle shed were leveled, several grain silos were destroyed, and trees were snapped and uprooted, with a few being partially debarked. The tornado became violent as it approached Adelphi, scouring sections of pavement from Highway 280 and debarking several more trees around Bull Creek. A cluster of houses to the east of Bull Creek was struck at EF4 strength; four well-constructed split-level homes were completely flattened, and two others were demolished. Additional trees were uprooted and debarked, and two more rural frame houses were leveled before the tornado struck Adelphi directly.

The tornado roughly followed Main Street through Adelphi, where 11 frame and split-level houses were completely leveled, most of which were found to have been well-constructed. An additional 29 houses were severely damaged or destroyed, and 16 others sustained minor damage. A large pub, a post office, and the Kingston National Bank were demolished as well. Several cars in Adelphi were thrown long distances and heavily mangled, with one originating near the post office being found 800 yards to the east and wrapped around a power pole. Several trees in Adelphi were completely debarked and denuded as well. The tornado then crossed Salt Creek into Laurelville, striking another residential area. Nearly two dozen houses in Laurelville were leveled, the Laurelville Church of God was almost entirely demolished, the large, brick Wellman Funeral Home was flattened and partially swept away, and several more trees were debarked. Damage in both Adelphi and Laurelville was rated mid-range EF4, with estimated wind speeds of 180 miles per hour. A 37-year old woman in Adelphi was killed as her car was tossed from a parking lot, and a 29-year old man in Laurelville was killed in the destruction of his home. An additional 46 people in the area were injured.

Past Laurelville, the tornado weakened to EF3 strength; snapping, uprooting, and debarking hundreds of trees in a large forest before passing over a rural subdivision, demolishing the upper floor of a large two-story house and completely destroying a few sheds and outbuildings. After crossing through a series of farmers' fields, the tornado struck a larger subdivision to the northwest of Gibsonville, destroying six houses, thirteen barns, a Methodist Church, and a lodge. A picket fence around an orchard was blown down in this area, several more trees were debarked, and cars were tossed up to 150 yards. Seven people were injured in the area; two critically, but no fatalities occurred.

Another cluster of rural houses was struck at high-end EF2 strength to the northeast of Gibsonville, where several mobile homes were completely destroyed, frame houses had their roofing completely removed, sheds and outbuildings were demolished, and several parked cars were flipped or tossed short distances. One man in this area was killed in the destruction of his mobile home, and four others were injured. The tornado continued over a subdivision to the south of Logan, removing the roofs from several more houses and tearing away half of the roofing from the Logan High School. Shortly after crossing a canal, the tornado weakened to EF1 strength and moved over another forested area for the remainder of its path. Numerous trees in the final 10 miles of the tornado's path were toppled, and many more had their branches snapped. The tornado ultimately dissipated around three miles to the southwest of Hemlock at 3:48 pm EDT.

The tornado left a path 46.25 miles long and remained on the ground for 54 minutes, making it the longest-tracked tornado in the state of Ohio since November 10, 2002. Three people were killed along the tornado's path, and 82 were injured. After the Adelphi–Laurelville tornado dissipated, its produced two more violent tornadoes in Ohio; one which struck Cumberland, and another which cut through Sycamore. Both tornadoes were also rated EF4.

Cleveland, Mississippi

EF5 tornado (NWS)
Philadelphia MS Tornado 3.png
Duration 1423 CDT – 1459 CDT
Intensity 405 km/h (255 mph) (1-min)

This destructive and particularly violent tornado, rated EF5, tracked through northwestern Mississippi in the afternoon of April 10, destroying numerous buildings and causing extreme vegetation damage in rural areas to the southeast of the city of Cleveland. The tornado touched down at 2:23 pm CDT to the north-northeast of Grapeland, causing roof damage to a small church at EF1 strength shortly after touching down. Several farmhouses, barns, and outbuildings sustained minor to moderate roof damage further along the path before the tornado crossed over a forested area, toppling hundreds of trees. Two double-wide mobile homes were demolished along Palmer-Satterfield Road at EF2 strength, and a parked SUV was rolled into a ditch. As the tornado crossed Litton Road, it narrowed from 120 yards to roughly 90 yards wide but continued to gain intensity, demolishing a farmhouse and two nearby barns at low-end EF3 strength. Nearby trees were snapped and denuded as well.

The tornado weakened to EF1 strength as it struck the community of Longshot, where additional trees were toppled and several large and well-built houses sustained severe roofing damage. Several outbuildings including a large tool shed were damaged as well, and one man was injured. Tree branches were snapped at EF0 strength in a small wood lot to the northeast of Longshot, and a moving car was pushed off of Litton Road. The tornado then moved over empty fields for two miles before striking a farm to the west of O'Reilly, removing the roofs from several farm buildings, damaging two grain silos, and demolishing the garage of the farmhouse; damage in this area was rated high-end EF1.

Approaching the community of Skene, the tornado intensified to EF3 strength, demolishing three well-constructed farmhouses before striking a mobile home park. Several mobile homes were cleanly swept away with debris scattered hundreds of yards downwind, and eleven people were injured in this area. As the tornado moved through Skene, the Skene Baptist Church and several houses suffered total roof loss; two houses had their exterior walls collapsed, and several trees were toppled or snapped. Most of the damage in Skene was rated EF2; however, one frame house was determined to have suffered low-end EF3 damage. Continuing to the northeast of Skene, the tornado rapidly grew and intensified, and at 2:38 pm a PDS tornado warning was issued for the city of Cleveland. The tornado struck another mobile home park outside the Cleveland city limits, obliterating several more mobile homes at EF4 strength. The steel undercarriage of one mobile home was tossed a half mile and found wrapped around the trunk of a tree, and several cars were tossed hundreds of yards and heavily damaged. One person was killed in this area, and six others were injured.

Consistent EF3 to EF4 damage was observed as the tornado tracked through the southern outskirts of Cleveland, where numerous houses were entirely leveled, with four being cleanly swept away, additional cars were tossed up to 210 yards, and trees were completely debarked and denuded. A steel plant on Laughlin Road was leveled with debris pushed off of its foundation, resulting in one death and six injuries; damage surveys determined that the plant sustained high-end EF4 damage. Shortly after cutting through Cleveland, the tornado reached EF5 strength in rural areas. Extreme vegetation damage was observed as the tornado passed over a series of fields, shredding wheat and corn  stalks down to half-inch stubble and tearing roots from the ground in clumps. Numerous ears of corn were husked in this area as well. A swath of ground scouring around 3/4 of a mile in length, 200 yards in width and up to 16 inches deep occurred through adjacent fields along Old Ruleville Road, and a stretch of asphalt nearly 200 feet long was scoured from the road itself. Trees in a small grove along White Street were completely debarked and denuded, with many being reduced to featureless trunks or small stubs. A moving van was tossed nearly a full mile from Old Ruleville Road and found stripped down to its frame and wrapped around the trunk of a tree. The bodies of the three occupants were found ejected up to 600 yards from the van.

The tornado weakened to EF4 strength shortly after passing to the north of Dockery, leveling three frame homes in a rural subdivision.

Winona–Eupora, Mississippi

EF4 tornado (NWS)
Cullman AL Tornado 4.jpg
Duration 1425 CDT – 1512 CDT
Intensity 295 km/h (185 mph) (1-min)

Bruce, Misissippi

EF4 tornado (NWS)
Cordova AL Tornado 3.jpg
Duration 1427 CDT – 1518 CDT
Intensity 280 km/h (175 mph) (1-min)

Greensboro, Alabama

EF5 tornado (NWS)
4-27-11 Rainsville tornado.jpg
Duration 1519 CDT – 1606 CDT
Intensity 380 km/h (235 mph) (1-min)

Sulligent–Beaverton–Winfield, Alabama

EF4 tornado (NWS)
Mayfield KY EF3.png
Duration 1524 CDT – 1621 CDT
Intensity 305 km/h (190 mph) (1-min)

Taylor–Thaxton–Blue Springs, Mississippi

EF5 tornado (NWS)
Smithville Tornado from Dam.png
Duration 1603 CDT – 1727 CDT
Intensity 455 km/h (280 mph) (1-min)
Main article: 2024 Thaxton, Mississippi tornado

Tanner–Capshaw–Harvest, Alabama/Kirkland–Kelso, Tennessee

EF5 tornado (NWS)
Tornado 340.jpg
Duration 1711 CDT – 1853 CDT
Intensity 415 km/h (260 mph) (1-min)
Main article: 2024 Tanner–Capshaw, Alabama tornado

Hollytree—Allison, Alabama/South Pittsburg, Tennessee

EF4 tornado (NWS)
Flat Rock AL EF4.jpg
Duration 1730 CDT – 1826 CDT
Intensity 285 km/h (180 mph) (1-min)

Adamsville–Fultondale–Springville–Ashville–Southside, Alabama/Cedartown, Georgia

EF5 tornado (NWS)
Duration 1741 CDT – 2032 CDT
Intensity 500 km/h (310 mph) (1-min)
Main article: 2024 Fultondale–Springville, Alabama tornado

Citronelle, Alabama

EF4 tornado (NWS)
Holly Springs MS Tornado 2.jpg
Duration 1812 CDT – 1854 CDT
Intensity 295 km/h (185 mph) (1-min)

Cordele—Seville, Georgia

EF4 tornado (NWS)
Rainsville AL EF5.png
Duration 1823 CDT – 1919 CDT
Intensity 305 km/h (190 mph) (1-min)

Flovilla—Shady Dale—Union Point, Georgia

EF4 tornado (NWS)
Shoal Creek Valley.jpg
Duration 1849 CDT – 2004 CDT
Intensity 315 km/h (195 mph) (1-min)
Main article: 2024 Shady Dale, Georgia tornado

Peachtree City–Fayetteville–Stockton–Covington–Rutledge, Georgia

EF5 tornado (NWS)
Ringgold GA EF4.png
Duration 1936 CDT – 2144 CDT
Intensity 455 km/h (280 mph) (1-min)
Main article: 2024 Peachtree City, Georgia tornado

Crossville, Tennessee

EF4 tornado (NWS)
Tornado 588.jpg
Duration 2301 CDT – 2342 CDT
Intensity 305 km/h (190 mph) (1-min)

Casualties and impact