2024 Super Outbreak
Supercell from plane.jpg
Tornadic supercell over Choctaw County, Mississippi on April 10.
Date of tornado outbreak: April 8–12, 2024
Duration1: 4 days, 2 hours, 18 minutes
Maximum rated tornado2: EF5 tornado
Tornadoes caused: 486 (Record for a continuous outbreak)
Total Damages: $36.2 billion
Total Fatalities: 531 (+29 non-tornadic)

1Time from first tornado to last tornado
2Most severe tornado damage; see wikipedia:Enhanced Fujita Scale

The 2024 Super Outbreak was the largest, costliest, and third-deadliest tornado outbreak in United States history. The outbreak primarily affected the "Dixie Alley" region of the United States, with additional destructive tornadoes occurring in the Great Lakes region on April 10. The outbreak produced a total of 486 tornadoes in 24 states, with the states of Alabama, Georgia, Indiana, Ohio, and Tennessee being the most severely affected. April 10 was by far the most active day of the outbreak, producing 312 tornadoes, including eight which were rated EF5, and 22 which were rated EF4.

A total of 531 people were killed by the outbreak, with an additional 29 people killed as a result of powerful straight-line winds, lightning, and flash flooding. Nearly half of the fatalities from the outbreak were the result of three violent tornadoes which caused dozens of deaths in Fultondale, Alabama, Peachtree City and Covington, Georgia, and Seymour, Indiana. Several other tornadoes caused death tolls well into the double digits, particularly in Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia.

Due to its extent and severity, the outbreak was compared by both meteorologists and mass media to the 1974 Super Outbreak, which produced a similar number of strong to violent tornadoes across the Midwestern states and into the "Dixie Alley" region.

Meteorological synopsis

In the early morning of April 8, an intense low-pressure system was observed developing over the Central Plains states. As the system moved eastward over the Midwestern States it was further intensified by a warm and extremely humid mass of air and particularly sharp temperature gradient across the system. As early as April 6, forecast conditions for April 10 were notably analogous to April 3, 1974, and the Storm Prediction Center issued a 30% risk of significant severe weather over much of the Eastern United States.

By the morning of April 10, a large-scale trough extended over nearly two-thirds of the contiguous United States, and a very powerful 80–100 knot mid-level jet stream moved into the Ohio and Tennessee Valleys behind the trough and created strong wind shear, along with a low pressure center moving quickly northeastward across those areas on April 27. During the afternoon of April 27, CAPE values were estimated to be in the range of 2000–3000 J/kg across Louisiana and southern Mississippi, with the moderate instability moving northeastward across the southern Tennessee Valley; additionally, temperatures across the southeastern United States ranged from the 70s°F (mid-20s°C) to the lower 90s°F (near 35 °C). Helicity levels ranged from 450–600 m2/s2, which supported some significant tornadic activity and strong to violent long-track tornadoes.

The Storm Prediction Center issued a moderate risk of severe weather for April 10 in its Day 3 convective outlook on April 8; by the morning of April 9, the moderate risk was extended from the Dixie Alley area north into the Midwestern states, while a high risk of severe weather was issued for central Alabama and western Georgia. By 0600 UTC on April 10, the high risk was expanded to cover most of Alabama and a significant portion of western Georgia and eastern and central Mississippi; while a second high-risk area was issued for southeastern Indiana, western Ohio, and far northern Kentucky. In the 1300 UTC outlook, a 45% hatched risk of tornadoes was issued for a corridor extending from Jackson, Mississippi to Atlanta, Georgia, while a small 60% hatched risk of tornadoes was issued in the 2000 UTC outlook for eastern Alabama and western Georgia.

April 8

2024-04-08 D1 Outlook

2000 UTC outlook on April 8.

The National Weather Service had forecast a marginal risk of severe weather for April 8 the previous day, believing that meager instability would hamper the development of any significant severe thunderstorms. On the morning of April 8, when it became clear that CAPE values were somewhat higher than had been expected, a slight risk of severe weather was issued for central and eastern Oklahoma. The slight risk was based primarily on a 15% risk of damaging wind gusts, with a small 5% risk of tornadoes issued for the Tulsa metropolitan area. At 2:16 pm CDT, a tornado watch was issued for eastern Oklahoma, with a 40% probability of two or more tornadoes, and a 20% probability of one or more significant (EF2+) tornadoes.

By 5:00 pm CDT, several supercells had developed in Oklahoma, five of which quickly developed areas of tight and persistent rotation, resulting in the issuance of tornado warnings in several counties in eastern Oklahoma. Several weak and short-lived tornadoes were reported in the late afternoon hours, including an EF1 tornado which caused considerable damage at a mobile home park near Depew, Oklahoma, resulting in one death and around 25 injuries. Most of the other tornadoes in the afternoon hours produced little damage and no fatalities or injuries. Two of the tornadic supercells continued to intensify after sunset and produced more significant tornadoes.

At around 9:30 pm, a large EF3 tornado struck the town of McAlester, Oklahoma, demolishing numerous frame houses, snapping and uprooting trees, tossing parked cars up to 120 yards, and toppling a large metal transmission tower. Three people were killed in McAlester, and an additional 78 were injured. A second strong tornado occurred in an industrial area just outside the Tulsa city limits, causing severe roof damage to several factories and partially demolishing a half-dozen warehouses. The tornado caused one death and 17 injuries, and was rated as a high-end EF2.

A total of 49 tornadoes were reported on April 8, of which 37 were confirmed. Five people were killed on the 8th, and approximately 160 were injured. The McAlester tornado was the first tornado to cause multiple deaths in Oklahoma in five years, and the costliest in the state since the EF5 tornado which struck the city of Moore on May 20, 2013.

April 9

2024-04-09 D1 Outlook

2000 UTC outlook on April 9.

The National Weather Service anticipated the development of numerous severe thunderstorms in the Southeastern United States on April 9 in an area extending from central Arkansas south to the Gulf Coast region. A slight risk of severe weather for the area was issued on April 7; by April 8, the slight risk was shifted slightly to the south, while an enhanced risk area was added for far eastern Texas and southwestern Louisiana.

On the morning of April 9, a moderate risk of severe weather was issued for the Ark-La-Tex area, while the enhanced and slight risk areas were expanded eastward to the Mississippi state line. The moderate risk was based on a 15% hatched risk of tornadoes and a 45% hatched risk of damaging wind gusts. At 1:25 pm CDT a tornado watch with a 70% chance of two or more tornadoes and a 40% chance of one or more significant tornadoes was issued for central and southern Arkansas. By 2:10 pm CDT, a Particularly Dangerous Situation (PDS) tornado watch, with an 80% chance of two or more tornadoes and a 60% chance of one or more significant tornadoes, was issued for northern Louisiana and extreme eastern Texas.

An intense squall line developed over eastern Texas in the morning hours and tracked due east across Louisiana and Arkansas, before gradually weakening as it passed over Mississippi, Alabama and Tennessee. Severe rainfall and damaging wind gusts were reported, along with two unverified tornado reports in southern Arkansas. By the mid-afternoon hours, supercells began to develop, with one long-lived supercell tracking along the triple point and producing several strong tornadoes. The first significant tornado of the day was a large, EF2-rated wedge which struck the small community of Ajax, Louisiana at around 3:45 pm CDT, killing two people and injuring an additional 16. Soon after, another supercell to the northwest produced an intense EF3 tornado which cut through Jonesville, Texas at 3:57 pm, demolishing dozens of houses and injuring 13 people. At 4:26 pm, the same supercell that produced the Ajax tornado spawned another tornado which touched down in rural Jackson Parish. The tornado rapidly intensified and tracked through the town of Chatham, where three fatalities and 36 injuries occurred. The Chatham tornado was rated as a high-end EF3, with estimated winds of 160 miles per hour. The parent supercell produced two weak tornadoes before another large tornado developed over Morehouse Parish at 6:03 pm, and passed near the village of Mer Rouge. The tornado considerable damage at several farms and over forested areas, and was rated as an EF2 with estimated winds of 125 miles per hour.

Several supercells continued into Arkansas in the evening hours, producing additional strong tornadoes. A low-end EF2 tornado tracked through Bluff City at 7:12 pm, injuring three people, while another EF2 tornado caused severe damage to homes and businesses in Dierks, resulting in seven injuries. At 9:49 pm, the supercell which produced the Ajax, Chatham, and Mer Rouge tornadoes spawned a final EF3 tornado which tracked through northern Lonoke County and into White County, resulting in one death in the small community of Garner and 33 injuries. The final significant tornado of the day was an EF2-rated multiple-vortex tornado which tracked through rural Yell County before striking the town of Havana at 10:18 pm, resulting in nine injuries.

78 tornadoes were reported on April 9, of which 73 were confirmed. Four of the tornadoes were rated EF3, and seven were rated EF2. Six people were killed during the day, and over 210 were injured. April 9 was the most prolific day for tornadoes in the United States since June 11, 2019. The event was immediately overshadowed by April 10, which produced nearly five times as many tornadoes.

April 10

2024-04-10 D1 outlook

2000 UTC outlook on April 10.

April 10 was by far the most prolific day of the outbreak sequence as well as the most active 24-hour period ever recorded in the United States. The 312 tornadoes in 16 states that occurred eclipsed even the 237 tornadoes confirmed on April 27, 2011, the previous record-holding day. Tornadoes were confirmed across much of the Eastern United States, from the Gulf Coast north to the Great Lakes region. A large outbreak of tornadic supercells occurred over Indiana, Ohio, and northern Kentucky in the morning hours, and was followed in the late afternoon and evening hours by an even more widespread and intense event which impacted Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, and South Carolina.

Of the 312 tornadoes confirmed on April 10, eight were rated EF5; 22 were rated EF4; and 38 were rated EF3. Of the 498 fatalities on April 10, nearly half were the result of four individual tornadoes. Several of the violent tornadoes on April 10 were noted as having exceptionally high fatality rates; in some cases more fatalities than injuries occurred. As a result of the distribution and intensity of the tornadoes on April 10, the National Weather Service and numerous media outlets compared the day's event to the Super Outbreak of 1974.

Indiana and Ohio

Supercells developed rapidly over central and southern Indiana during the late morning hours of the 10th, several of which quickly became tornadic. The first tornadoes of the day developed over central Indiana at around 11:00 am EDT. Several weak and short-lived tornadoes occurred within the hour and caused minor damage. The first intense tornado of the day was an EF3-rated multiple-vortex tornado which struck Quincy, Indiana at 12:17 pm, and was quickly followed by a high-end EF2 tornado which caused considerable damage in the town of Monrovia. The first EF5 tornado of the outbreak struck the town of Medora, Indiana at 12:40 pm, causing five fatalities and 19 injuries over its 25-mile path. The Medora tornado was quickly followed by a devastating EF4 tornado which cut through the city of Seymour at 1:23 pm, severely damaging or destroying nearly a quarter of all buildings in town, resulting in 41 deaths and 371 injuries. Another damaging EF3 tornado impacted the city of Hagerstown at 1:38 am, causing one death and 11 injuries.

By the late morning hours, most of the supercells had continued into Ohio, with the same supercell that produced the EF3 Quincy, Indiana tornado producing a violent EF5 tornado which impacted Urbana, Ohio at around 2:30 pm, causing 17 deaths and 381 injuries. At around 2:50 pm, a destructive EF3 tornado caused widespread destruction in the Hamilton suburbs of Millville and New Miami, causing one death and 19 injuries. Around the same time, a violent and long-tracked tornado touched down in Ross County, Ohio, reaching EF4 strength as it tracked through the towns of Adelphi and Laurelville at 3:09 pm. The tornado caused three deaths and 22 injuries along its path. Two large tornadoes struck Fredericktown shortly before 3:45 pm, damaging almost every structure in town. These twin tornadoes were rated EF3 and EF2. At 4:14 pm, the same supercell that produced the Adelphi–Laurelville tornado produced another destructive EF4 tornado which tracked through Cumberland, causing catastrophic damage and 26 injuries. The final violent tornado of the Great Lakes event touched down at 5:17 pm and tracked for 51 miles through northern Ohio, reaching high-end EF4 strength near the town of Sycamore. Two people were killed in this tornado, and 31 others were injured.

Continuing into eastern Ohio and Pennsylvania, the supercells began to weaken and dissipate, with the final tornado of the event being an EF0-rated rope tornado which caused minor tree damage in Belmont County, Ohio at around 6:45 pm. 81 tornadoes occurred in the Great Lakes area, causing 79 deaths and 802 injuries

Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia

The morning hours of April 10 were humid and overcast in the Southeastern states, with temperatures in the 78 to 85 range across much of Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia. The cloud cover began to break at around 9:30 am CDT, and within two hours, several extremely intense supercells began to develop. At around 1:00 pm CDT, an EF5 tornado passed to the south of the town of Midnight, Mississippi, causing six deaths and extreme damage to vegetation in rural areas. To the northeast, another supercell produced a long-lived EF4 tornado which caused severe damage in Winona, Mississippi, killing seven people. Around an hour later, the Winona tornado's parent supercell produced another EF4 tornado in western Alabama, which struck the towns of Sulligent, Beaverton, and Winfield, killing 11 and causing near-EF5 damage to several houses in rural areas. Shortly after 3:00 pm CDT, two violent tornadoes developed in northern Mississippi. One of the tornadoes tracked for nearly 90 miles from Quitman County to Lee County, causing EF5 damage in Taylor and Thaxton and killing 24 people. The second tornado tracked through rural areas to the south of Bruce, causing EF4 damage to farmhouses and farm equipment. No fatalities occurred, although 11 people were injured.

Tornadic activity was at its most severe in Alabama, where the majority of the 531 fatalities caused by the outbreak occurred. An EF5 tornado tracked directly through the town of Greensboro at around 3:25 pm, killing 19; immediately after the Greensboro tornado dissipated, its parent supercell produced a high-end EF3 tornado which caused seven deaths in the town of Lawley. An extremely long-tracked EF5 tornado, produced by the same supercell that produced the Midnight, Mississippi tornado, cut a 136-mile path from Browntown, Alabama to Draketown, Georgia, causing 87 deaths, primarily in the city of Fultondale. The supercell that produced the Winona, Mississippi and Beaverton, Alabama tornadoes produced a third EF4 tornado which struck the town of Hayden, Alabama just before 4:00 pm CDT, killing one person.

Tennessee and Kentucky

April 11

April 12

Notable tornadoes

Medora, Indiana

EF5 tornado (NWS)
Century FL tornado 3.jpg
Duration 0825 EDT – 0855 EDT
Intensity 340 km/h (210 mph) (1-min)

The first EF5 tornado of the tornado outbreak developed over southern Indiana in the mid-morning hours of April 10 and tracked through the town of Medora before dissipating in rural Jackson County. The tornado touched down at 8:25 am EDT over a forested area near the community of Pinhook, initially toppling trees in its path at EF1 strength. The tornado gradually intensified as it tracked east-northeast, snapping several trees at EF2 strength minutes after touching down. After crossing Guthrie Creek, the tornado struck a farmhouse, completely removing its roof and collapsing a portion of one of its second-floor walls. A nearby shed was mostly demolished at mid-range EF2 strength, and several more trees were snapped and toppled. The tornado weakened to EF1 strength as it continued over another forest, toppling trees and snapping branches in its path. A small cottage sustained minor roofing damage in this area as well.

Moving over a series of farmers' fields, the tornado reintensified to high-end EF2 strength, mostly demolishing a barn and a steel garage. A man who attempted to shelter in the garage was crushed to death as the tornado struck. The tornado then cut through a rural subdivision while continuing to intensify. Several frame houses were destroyed with only interior walls left standing, while numerous others had their roofs removed. A brick Methodist church lost the majority of its roof and half of one exterior wall. Several parked cars in this area were tossed up to 95 yards, and trees were snapped and uprooted. Surveys determined that a mixture of EF2 and EF3-level damage occurred in the area. Moving over a large forested area, the tornado maintained EF3 strength, snapping and uprooting thousands of trees in its path. Numerous trees were partially debarked, and a few trees near a hiking trail were stripped of their branches and reduced to featureless trunks; tree damage at this location was severe enough that damage surveyors assigned an EF4 rating.

Immediately after exiting the forest, the violent and intensifying tornado cut directly through the town of Medora. Numerous well-constructed frame houses in the tornado's path were competely leveled, and several were entirely swept away. Some of these houses were found to have been newly built and well-anchored to their foundations; at least seven houses were determined to have sustained EF5 damage. The western half of Medora High School was torn away with debris scattered more than 150 yards downwind, while the eastern half was almost entirely leveled. A neighboring brick church was flattened, while a steel warehouse was reduced to an empty foundation. Several parked cars near the church were tossed as far as 700 yards and mangled beyond recognition while a tractor-trailer was thrown 400 yards into a bank. Further to the east, brick businesses including a tavern and a post office were swept away; a few anchor bolts at the post office were snapped off of the foundation. Trees in a small wood lot were completely debarked and denuded before the tornado moved over more rural areas. Four people were killed in town, and an additional 60 were injured.

The tornado maintained EF4 strength for a half-mile to the east of Medora, sweeping away barns and outbuildings on a farm and debarking additional trees. Past this point, the tornado rapidly weakened to low-end EF3 strength, partially demolishing a rural warehouse before crossing the East Fork White River, snapping and uprooting dozens of trees along its banks. The tornado then moved over a vineyard, flattening crops and partially demolishing a wooden barn. EF2 damage was observed as far east as Highway 39, beyond which the tornado weakened to EF0 strength. Minor roofing damage was observed to several barns before the tornado dissipated to the north-northeast of Retreat at 8:55 am.

The tornado remained on the ground for 30 minutes over a 25.60-mile path. The tornado was given a rating of EF5, with estimated peak winds of 210 miles per hour based on the damage in Medora. A total of five people were killed, and 78 others were injured. The National Weather Service office in Indianapolis expressed that the tornado's low death toll was "remarkable" considering the tornado's occurrence in the mid-morning. The lack of a much higher death toll was attributed to considerable lead time, with the town of Medora having been under a tornado warning for more than 20 minutes before the tornado struck.

Seymour, Indiana

EF4 tornado (NWS)
Washington IL Tornado 3.jpg
Duration 0916 EDT – 0958 EDT
Intensity 280 km/h (175 mph) (1-min)

In the mid-morning hours of April 10, a violent and deadly tornado cut through the city of Seymour and surrounding areas of southeastern Indiana, earning a rating of EF4. The tornado touched down at 9:16 am EDT in rural Jackson County roughly two miles to the southwest of Hangman Crossing and initially inflicted EF0-level damage to tree branches and the roofs of a few frame houses. Shortly after touching down, the tornado began a period of rapid intensification, reaching EF3 strength within minutes of touchdown. Numerous well-constructed frame and split-level houses were demolished in Hangman Crossing, with only portions of interior walls left standing at a few houses. Trees in Hangman Crossing were partially debarked and stripped of their branches, and several cars and trucks were thrown in excess of 130 yards. One man was killed in Hangman Crossing, and 16 others were injured.

The tornado reached EF4 strength as it continued into Seymour, demolishing several warehouses, a furniture store, and a small courthouse. As the tornado moved into residential areas, hundreds of houses in its path were severely damaged or destroyed, with several being completely leveled. Three poorly-anchored houses along Vine Street were cleanly swept away with only empty foundations remaining, but damage surveyors determined that no ground or pavement scouring occurred in this area and that nearby shrubs and hedges were not debarked, preventing an EF5 rating. The tornado passed directly over Seymour High School, demolishing the southern third of the building and leaving only sections of interior walls standing in the northern portion. At a football field to the south of the high school, a set of bleachers was tossed and a scoreboard collapsed, power poles and chain-link fences were ripped from the ground, and a narrow stretch of soil scouring occurred. The tornado then moved over the city's central business district while near peak strength. The Seymour Police Station, five restaurants, a gun shop, a dollar store, a tanning salon, and a public library were demolished or leveled, and an additional 52 businesses sustained varying degrees of damage. A large trucking plant on the east side of Seymour had nearly all of its roof, one exterior wall, and half of another exterior wall completely removed, and two neighboring smaller warehouses were completely demolished before the tornado exited the Seymour city limits.

The tornado continued over rural areas to the northeast of Seymour, sweeping away several barns and debarking trees and small shrubs before striking a large farmhouse, which was completely leveled. As the tornado continued over a series of small wood lots, hundreds of trees were debarked, toppled, and uprooted at low-end EF4 strength. The tornado weakened to EF3 intensity as it struck and mostly demolished a frame house to the east of a wood lot and tossed a nearby pickup truck 145 yards. A few barns and outbuildings were completely flattened along West County Road 175, and numerous trees in a small grove were snapped, uprooted, and partially debarked. The tornado reached EF4 strength a second time as it passed over a rural subdivision, leveling four well-constructed and anchor-bolted frame houses, debarking and denuding several large trees, and tossing an above-ground swimming pool 240 yards. No fatalities occurred in this subdivision, although six people were injured.

The tornado weakened to EF3 strength as it passed to the south of Queensville. 17 frame houses were demolished with only interior walls left standing, resulting in three fatalities and eight injuries. The Bible Baptist Church had its roof completely removed, while the North Vernon Baptist Church lost its roof and two exterior walls. Two large factories in an industrial area to the north were severely damaged, with the Decatur Plastics Products building losing its entire roof and having its southeast corner completely demolished. Several more trees were debarked as the tornado continued over another small forest. Moving over an orchard, the tornado snapped and uprooted several young apple trees at high-end EF2 strength. A mushroom barn was struck next and mostly demolished, injuring two people. The final death caused by the tornado occurred around five miles to the northeast of the North Vernon Municipal Airport, where an elderly woman was killed in the destruction of her mobile home. After crossing Long Branch Creek, the tornado regained EF3 strength a final time, completely demolishing a small brick church and leveling two neighboring farmhouses. Damage in this area was initially rated EF4 before being downgraded in a secondary survey based on the lack of any debarked trees or ground scouring.

Consistent high-end EF2 damage was observed as the tornado cut through another forest, toppling and snapping trees in its path. A small inn near the edge of the forest had its roof removed and a portion of its second floor collapsed, and three split-level houses in a small cluster were partially demolished. The tornado weakened rapidly soon after exiting the forest and moving over fields, causing minimal damage over the final five miles of its path. The funnel took on a slanted elephant trunk shape as it passed to the northeast of Osgood; shortly afterwards, the tornado roped out and dissipated to the south of Napoleon at 9:58 am.

A total of 41 people were killed in the tornado, and 491 others were injured. 36 of the fatalities occurred within the Seymour city limits, with 11 fatalities occurring at the Seymour High School, and another eight occurring at the trucking plant. The tornado remained on the ground for 42 minutes and left a path 34.25 miles long, reaching a peak width of 410 yards near Queensville. A state of emergency was issued for Jackson County at 12:16 pm EDT and federal aid was soon dispatched to Seymour, as well as the nearby city of Medora, which had previously been struck by an EF5 tornado produced by the same supercell that produced the Seymour tornado. The parent supercell produced a final significant tornado, rated EF2, near the unincorporated community of Cedar Grove at 10:32 am, which resulted in six injuries.

Urbana, Ohio

EF5 tornado (NWS)
South Nashville TN EF3.jpg
Duration 1013 EDT – 1049 EDT
Intensity 350 km/h (220 mph) (1-min)

Produced by a powerful cyclic supercell, this EF5-rated tornado tracked through rural areas of western Ohio and passed near the city of Urbana while near peak strength. The tornado touched down at 10:13 am EDT near the community of Dawnview Acres and tracked northeast at more than 50 miles per hour. The tornado initially damaged the roofs of several frame houses and snapped numerous tree branches before moving over farmland. A few barns and outbuildings sustained moderate roofing damage over the next two miles of the tornado's path, while farmhouses had shingles removed from their roofs. The tornado strengthened to EF2 intensity as it grazed past the tiny unincorporated community of North Hampton, where mobile homes were demolished, frame houses had their roofs completely removed, the Pike Township Fire Station lost all but one corner of its roof, and a brick courthouse sustained minor damage.

Past North Hampton, the tornado moved over empty fields and caused minimal damage over the next mile of its path. Video evidence suggest the tornado nearly doubled its width in a period of 30 seconds, expanding to 800 yards. The tornado passed over a forested area at high-end EF2 strength, toppling and snapping hundreds of trees before cutting through the Pinewood Estates subdivision, where a steel warehouse was mostly demolished, a few permanent houses had their roofs and exterior walls removed, and mobile homes were leveled. Damage in Pinewood Estates was initially rated high-end EF2 before being upgraded to low-end EF3 in a secondary damage survey. The Drake Acres subdivision was struck next, where several more houses were demolished, trees were partially debarked, and several cars were thrown up to 160 yards.

The tornado weakened to EF0 and low-end EF1 strength as it passed through another forested area and to the northwest of Tremont City due to the fluctuating intensity of its parent supercell. Minimal damage occurred over the next five miles of the tornado's path. An industrial area near Storms Creek was struck at EF1 strength, where several factories and warehouses sustained minor roofing damage, and outbuildings were heavily damaged. The tornado rapidly regained intensity as it neared Highway 55, debarking trees in a wood lot at high-end EF3 strength. Further to the northeast, a farmhouse was completely leveled, three barns were swept away, and additional trees were debarked. Two people were killed in this area, and three people were injured. As the tornado neared Highway 55, a rare tornado emergency was issued for the city of Urbana.

The tornado reached EF5 intensity as it cut through the southeastern fringe of Urbana. An industrial area was struck first, where a large manufacturing plant was leveled and partially swept away, with debris scattered across the eastern half of the town, and a furniture warehouse and a packaging company building were completely flattened. Several trucks in the area were thrown more than 500 yards, and a forklift was found nearly a full mile to the north. As the tornado continued into residential areas, numerous well-constructed split-level houses were swept away, many of which were found to have been well-anchored with nut and washer-secured bolts. Surveys reported that at least 30 houses were reduced to bare foundations, 12 of which were found to have sustained EF5 damage. Two houses had their basement walls cleanly sheared off inches above ground level. Additionally, several trees were completely debarked and denuded, and cars were tossed up to 750 yards and mangled beyond recognition. The tornado moved over a track and field stadium, leaving a swath of pronounced grass scouring before moving over Highway 36, leveling a Kroger grocery store, a bank, and a Walmart, then exiting the city limits and moving over more rural areas. A total of 13 people were killed in Urbana, and 141 were injured.

Past Urbana, a large farm was struck at EF5 strength. The large and well-constructed farmhouse was cleanly swept away with a portion of its ground floor collapsed into the basement, and debris scattered a quarter-mile to the east. Two cars parked nearby were tossed 600 yards, with one found crumpled and wrapped around the trunk of a tree. Corn stalks in fields were shredded down to stubble, and widespread soil scouring occurred. EF4 damage continued as the tornado crossed Highway 36 a second time, tossing a truck two-thirds of a mile from the highway and killing the driver. Nearby trees were completely debarked, and an unanchored farmhouse further to the northeast was swept away, with a large tractor nearby being tossed 500 yards. An auto repair shop near Highway 36 was completely leveled, leading to one final fatality. The tornado weakened further to EF3 strength as it passed over another wood lot, snapping and uprooting dozens more trees.

Moving over empty fields, the tornado narrowed to 300 yards in width and took on a typical stovepipe appearance. EF1 to EF2-level damage was observed to a subdivision near Woodstock, where several houses had their roofing severely stripped, and the Triad High School had its roof completely removed and one exterior wall knocked down. Another subdivision of small, wooden frame houses to the north was struck as the tornado continued to weaken and narrow. EF1-level roofing damage was observed to several houses in this area, and several trees and power poles were downed. The tornado roped out and dissipated over a forest to the south of North Lewisburg at 10:49 am.

The tornado caused 17 fatalities and 208 injuries over its 29.80-mile path, and remained on the ground for 36 minutes. The tornado was rated as an EF5, with estimated peak winds of 220 miles per hour (350 km/h) based on damage in residential areas of Urbana. The National Weather Service office in Wilmington, Ohio later stated that, despite the devastation, the death toll may have been several times higher if the tornado had tracked slightly to the north and struck the central business district of Urbana, or struck an hour earlier, when more commuters were on the roads. The tornado was the first to be rated F5 or EF5 in Ohio since May 31, 1985, and the first violent tornado in the state since June 5, 2010. Urbana was the first of five cities visited by the President of the United States in the days following the outbreak and the first to receive federal aid.

Adelphi–Laurelville, Ohio

EF4 tornado (NWS)
Henryville IN Tornado.png
Duration 1054 EDT – 1148 EDT
Intensity 285 km/h (180 mph) (1-min)

This violent and long-lived tornado cut a path through south-central Ohio in the late morning hours of April 10, reaching mid-range EF4 strength as it struck the neighboring towns of Adelphi and Laurelville, causing several fatalities and hundreds of injuries. The tornado touched down at 10:54 am EDT near Andersonville and was initially weak, inflicting EF1-level damage to the roof of a small church. A few houses, two metal storage buildings, and a farmhouse sustained EF1-level damage to their roofs and siding shortly after the tornado touched down. As the tornado moved over empty fields, it expanded from 35 to 70 yards in width and took on a long "elephant trunk" appearance. A barn to the east lost half of its roof, and nearby grain bins were damaged before the tornado moved over a forested area, where hundreds of trees were toppled. EF0-level damage was observed to sheds and outbuildings on the far side of the forest, and a rural frame house sustained low-end EF1 roofing damage. Additional trees in a wood lot were downed before the tornado reached EF2 strength as it struck the Pickaway-Ross Career & Technology Center, causing severe roofing damage to the complex and flipping or tossing several vehicles in the parking lot. Three people were injured in this area.

The tornado then continued over empty fields, flattening corn stalks and damaging the roofs of sheds. EF2 damage was observed as the tornado moved over residential areas to the south of Kingston, completely removing the roofs from several well-constructed homes, partially demolishing a convenience store, leveling two small sheds, and toppling or snapping several trees. As the tornado continued over another wood lot, numerous trees were snapped and uprooted at high-end EF2 strength. The nearby Kingston Church had its roof removed and one exterior wall collapsed, and barns and farmhouses further to the east were partially or mostly demolished. One poorly-anchored farmhouse in the area was leveled and partially swept away at low-end EF3 strength. Consistent EF2 damage was observed as the tornado passed through another forest, toppling or snapping trees in its path.

Around this time, the tornado expanded to around 120 yards in width, with the funnel becoming roughly V-shaped. Two other farmhouses had their roofs completely removed, and several barns were demolished, before the tornado regained EF3 intensity to the east of Whisler. Several well-constructed houses were completely demolished in the Whisler area, barns and a vehicle shed were leveled, several grain silos were destroyed, and trees were snapped and uprooted, with a few being partially debarked. The tornado became violent as it approached Adelphi, scouring sections of pavement from Highway 280 and debarking several more trees around Bull Creek. A cluster of houses to the east of Bull Creek was struck at EF4 strength; four well-constructed split-level homes were completely flattened, and two others were demolished. Additional trees were uprooted and debarked, and two more rural frame houses were leveled before the tornado struck Adelphi directly.

The tornado roughly followed Main Street through Adelphi, where 11 frame and split-level houses were completely leveled, most of which were found to have been well-constructed. An additional 29 houses were severely damaged or destroyed, and 16 others sustained minor damage. A large pub, a post office, and the Kingston National Bank were demolished as well. Several cars in Adelphi were thrown long distances and heavily mangled, with one originating near the post office being found 800 yards to the east and wrapped around a power pole. Several trees in Adelphi were completely debarked and denuded as well. The tornado then crossed Salt Creek into Laurelville, striking another residential area. Nearly two dozen houses in Laurelville were leveled, the Laurelville Church of God was almost entirely demolished, the large, brick Wellman Funeral Home was flattened and partially swept away, and several more trees were debarked. Damage in both Adelphi and Laurelville was rated mid-range EF4, with estimated wind speeds of 180 miles per hour. A 37-year old woman in Adelphi was killed as her car was tossed from a parking lot, and a 29-year old man in Laurelville was killed in the destruction of his home. An additional 46 people in the area were injured.

Past Laurelville, the tornado weakened to EF3 strength; snapping, uprooting, and debarking hundreds of trees in a large forest before passing over a rural subdivision, demolishing the upper floor of a large two-story house and completely destroying a few sheds and outbuildings. After crossing through a series of farmers' fields, the tornado struck a larger subdivision to the northwest of Gibsonville, destroying six houses, thirteen barns, a Methodist Church, and a lodge. A picket fence around an orchard was blown down in this area, several more trees were debarked, and cars were tossed up to 150 yards. Seven people were injured in the area; two critically, but no fatalities occurred.

Another cluster of rural houses was struck at high-end EF2 strength to the northeast of Gibsonville, where several mobile homes were completely destroyed, frame houses had their roofing completely removed, sheds and outbuildings were demolished, and several parked cars were flipped or tossed short distances. One man in this area was killed in the destruction of his mobile home, and four others were injured. The tornado continued over a subdivision to the south of Logan, removing the roofs from several more houses and tearing away half of the roofing from the Logan High School. Shortly after crossing a canal, the tornado weakened to EF1 strength and moved over another forested area for the remainder of its path. Numerous trees in the final 10 miles of the tornado's path were toppled, and many more had their branches snapped. The tornado ultimately dissipated around three miles to the southwest of Hemlock at 11:48 am EDT.

The tornado left a path 46.25 miles long and remained on the ground for 54 minutes, making it the longest-tracked tornado in the state of Ohio since November 10, 2002. Three people were killed along the tornado's path, and 82 were injured. The Adelphi–Laurelville tornado was the final significant tornado to occur in the Great Lakes region on April 10. Following its dissipation, only a few weak tornadoes were reported until the touchdown of a large EF3 tornado which struck Carpenter, Mississippi at 12:36 pm CDT, roughly two hours after the Adelphi–Laurelville tornado dissipated.

Midnight, Mississippi

EF5 tornado (NWS)
Philadelphia MS Tornado 3.png
Duration 1242 CDT – 1319 CDT
Intensity 405 km/h (255 mph) (1-min)

This extremely violent tornado tracked through west-central Mississippi in the early afternoon of April 10, earning a rating of EF5 and producing some of the most extreme vegetation damage ever documented. The tornado touched down around two miles to the south-southeast of Anguilla at 12:42 pm CDT and tracked northeast at nearly 60 miles per hour. The tornado initially snapped and toppled several trees and power poles along Highway 14 at EF1 to low-end EF2 strength. A pear orchard was struck near the intersection of the highway and Catching Road, where pear trees were uprooted or snapped, larger neighboring oak and beech trees were toppled, and a farmhouse was partially demolished, with the roof being completely removed and two exterior walls demolished. Additional trees were toppled and snapped as the tornado passed over a forested area past this point, and two neighboring mobile homes on the east side of the forest were completely demolished at high-end EF2 strength.

The tornado briefly reached EF3 strength along Straight Bayou Road, destroying a well-constructed and newly-built frame house which was left with only two interior walls still standing. A nearby pickup truck was tossed 80 yards, and a few trees were snapped and partially debarked. The tornado then weakened to EF2 strength as it passed to the southeast of Auter, demolishing a few manufactured houses and blowing down a wooden fence at the edge of a parsley field. Crossing through a wood lot, the tornado rapidly regained strength. Several trees in this area were snapped, uprooted, and debarked at high-end EF3 strength, and low-growing plants were flattened. The tornado crossed through a series of empty fields before striking a cluster of farm buildings. Three barns were completely leveled, and seven others were heavily damaged; around 150 sheep were killed, and a tractor and a minivan were tossed well over 150 yards in opposite directions. Trees in a neighboring wood lot were debarked and denuded at EF4 strength less than a minute before the tornado passed through the town of Midnight.

Midnight was impacted by the tornado at 12:59 pm CDT. One poorly-anchored frame house on Lampkin Street was cleanly swept away at mid-range EF4 strength, and three other houses were completely leveled with debris pushed off of their foundations. Two larger split-level houses on Claiborne Street were flattened, and eight other houses in town sustained moderate to severe damage. Three people were killed in Midnight, and an additional seven were injured. Past Midnight, the tornado continued to intensify, reaching EF5 strength over rural areas. Extreme vegetation damage was observed as the tornado passed over a series of fields, shredding wheat and corn stalks down to half-inch stubble and tearing roots from the ground in clumps. Numerous ears of corn were husked in this area as well. A swath of ground scouring around 3/4 of a mile in length, 200 yards in width and up to 16 inches deep occurred through adjacent fields along Fish Lake Road, and a stretch of asphalt nearly 200 feet long was scoured from the road itself. Trees in a small grove along Cartwright Road were completely debarked and denuded, with many being reduced to featureless trunks or small stubs. A moving van was tossed nearly a full mile from Fish Lake Road and found stripped down to its frame and wrapped around the trunk of a tree. The bodies of the three occupants were found ejected up to 600 yards from the van.

The tornado weakened to EF4 strength shortly after passing to the south of Silver City, leveling three frame houses in a rural subdivision.

Winona–Eupora, Mississippi

EF4 tornado (NWS)
Cullman AL Tornado 4.jpg
Duration 1356 CDT – 1443 CDT
Intensity 295 km/h (185 mph) (1-min)

Bruce, Mississippi

EF4 tornado (NWS)
Cordova AL Tornado 3.jpg
Duration 1419 CDT – 1528 CDT
Intensity 305 km/h (190 mph) (1-min)

Sulligent–Beaverton–Winfield, Alabama

EF4 tornado (NWS)
Clarksdale MS Tornado 4.jpg
Duration 1510 CDT – 1544 CDT
Intensity 285 km/h (180 mph) (1-min)

Greensboro, Alabama

EF5 tornado (NWS)
4-27-11 Rainsville tornado.jpg
Duration 1519 CDT – 1611 CDT
Intensity 380 km/h (235 mph) (1-min)

Casualties and impact